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SAP ABAP Performance Tuning

In this world of SAP programming, ABAP is the universal language. In most of the projects, the focus is on getting a team of ABAP programmers as soon as possible, handing over the technical specifications to them and asking them to churn out the ABAP programs within the “given deadlines”.
Often due to this pressure of schedules and deliveries, the main focus of making a efficient program takes a back seat. An efficient ABAP program is one which delivers the required output to the user in a finite time as per the complexity of the program, rather than hearing the comment “I put the program to run, have my lunch and come back to check the results”.

Environments and Clients

An SAP environment is a completely self-contained version of the SAP database, designated for a specific purpose. As an SAP end-user, you will be working in the Production, Practice, and Training environments.

A client is a self-contained unit in an SAP R/3 system with its own separate master records and set of tables. You don't need to remember what client to use on Production; simply accept whatever the system defaults to on startup.
The following table lists the SAP system icons in the SAP Frontend folder and their use. As an end-user, you will probably be using only the highlighted servers for your work in SAP. They are described below.

SAP Financial Terminology

Before you work in SAP, you need to understand SAP financial terminology.
In SAP there are three types of cost objects: Cost Center, Internal Order, and WBS (Work Breakdown Structure) Element.

Cost Center:

General or operating accounts are known in SAP as Cost Centers. Cost Centers are budgeted on the fiscal year.  

Internal Order:

MIT Fund Accounts may be either Internal Orders or WBS Elements in SAP. A non-sponsored Fund Account (e.g., funding from the MIT Provost) is an Internal Order. A sponsored fund account (carrying a 4-digit sponsor code, e.g., a corporate fellowship program) is a WBS Element. These cost objects are used to track expenses for a particular activity. They are not tied to the fiscal year and some receive interest income

Designing SAP Transactions

For performing any kind of task in the SAP R/3 ERP system, a transaction is used. SAP provides a standard set of transactions to manipulate i.e insert, update, delete and display data in the system. But sometimes, the need to create a customer specific transaction may arise due to the following reasons
Standard SAP may not support that task
A particular transaction needs to be customized to suit the customer requirements

SAP Dynpros

A sap dynpro is nothing but a SAP screen that provides a forum for the user to interact with the SAP database. The dynpro forms the heart of any transaction, and in order to design one for a particular process, the process needs to be broken down into a sequence of dynpros. The main components of a typical SAP custom transaction dynpro are:

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